Todays Exercises

Sandtray Story 

On Canva

Flavour Of The Day 

The R.U.D Process

Kristen Neff Self Compassion Practice 


States & Story 

States Story & Sensations

What Do I Feel In My Body 

What’s My State Tracker Worksheet   

Improving Active Listening Skills 

Open Ended Statements 

Exploring Friendships & Their Emotional Impact 

Research Papers

  • Emotion an evolutionary-approach to neural regulation Porges 
  • Critique of the Polyvagal Theory -Final Translation
  • Infant and Child Development – 2011 – Porges – The early development of the autonomic nervous system provides a neural
  • The Evolution of Sociality and the Polyvagal Theory
  • Signal Processing On The Vagus Nerve 
  • An overview of the phylogeny of cardiorespiratory control in 2022
  • Rhythm and Safety of Social Engagement Polyvagal Theory Informed
  • Pick Evolution Homeostasis Phylogenetic


External Resources 

NEUROCEPTION: A Subconscious System for Detecting Threats and Safety

6 Playful Activities for Teens 13-17 years

Epigenetics and Child Development: How Children’s Experiences Affect Their Genes

Place Matters: What Surrounds Us Shapes Us



Assessments & Tools

Porges’ Review Articles

  • The Pocket Guide to the Polyvagal Theory: The Transformative Power of Feeling Safe Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company Publication Year: 2021
  •–group-circle/2014_winter_group_circle.pdf?sfvrsn=2e0a95a9_2 Growing a Social Brain 

  1. Orienting in a defensive world: mammalian modifications of our evolutionary heritage. A Polyvagal Theory. Psychophysiology, 1995.
  2. Emotion: an evolutionary by-product of the neural regulation of the autonomic nervous system. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1997.
  3. Love: an emergent property of the mammalian autonomic nervous system. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 1998.
  4. The polyvagal theory: phylogenetic substrates of a social nervous system. Int J Psychophysiol, 2001.
  5. The Polyvagal Theory: phylogenetic contributions to social behavior. Physiol Behav, 2003a.
  6. Social engagement and attachment: a phylogenetic perspective. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2003b.
  7. A phylogenetic journey through the vague and ambiguous Xth cranial nerve: a commentary on contemporary heart rate variability research. Biol Psychol, 2006a.
  8. The Polyvagal Perspective. Biol Psychol, 2006b.
  9. The polyvagal theory: new insights into adaptive reactions of the autonomic nervous system. Cleve Clin J Med, 2009.
  10. The Early Development of the Autonomic Nervous System Provides a Neural Platform for Social Behavior: A Polyvagal Perspective. Infant Child Dev, 2011.
  11. Cardiac vagal tone: a neurophysiological mechanism that evolved in mammals to dampen threat reactions and promote sociality. World Psychiatry, 2021a.
  12. Polyvagal Theory: A biobehavioral journey to sociality. Compr Psychoneuroendocrinol 2021b.
  13. Polyvagal Theory: A Science of Safety. Front Integr Neurosci, 2022a.
  14. Heart Rate Variability: A Personal Journey. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback, 2022b.
  15. *Sargunaraj et al. Cardiac rhythm effects of .125-Hz paced breathing through a resistive load: implications for paced breathing therapy and the polyvagal theory. Biofeedback Self Regul, 1996.
  16. *Reed et al. A neural explanation of fetal heart rate patterns: A test of the polyvagal theory. Dev Psychobiol, 1999.
  17. *Porges et al. Heart rate and respiration in reptiles: contrasts between a sit-and-wait predator and an intensive forager. Brain Cogn, 2003.

Critical Papers and ResearchGate Threads

  1. Grossman P & Taylor EW. Toward understanding respiratory sinus arrhythmia: relations to cardiac vagal tone, evolution and biobehavioral functions. Biol Psychol, 2007.
  2. Taylor et al. An overview of the phylogeny of cardiorespiratory control in vertebrates with some reflections on the ‘Polyvagal Theory’. Biol Psychol, 2022.
  3. Grossman. ResearchGate (main project): Examining Porges’ “Polyvagal” suppositions (2016, ongoing)
  4. Grossman. ResearchGate (question): After 20 years of “polyvagal” hypotheses, is there any direct evidence for the first 3 premises that form the foundation of the polyvagal conjectures? (2016, ongoing)
  5. Grossman. ResearchGate (question): Does anyone know of research documenting large heart-rate decrease during episodes of psychological dissociation? (2016, ongoing)

References re: Role of DMNV in Bradycardia

  1. Cheng et al. Projections of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus to cardiac ganglia of rat atria: an anterograde tracing study. J Comp Neurol, 1999.
  2. Cheng Z & Powley TL. Nucleus ambiguus projections to cardiac ganglia of rat atria: an anterograde tracing study. J Comp Neurol, 2000.
  3. Cheng et al. Domoic acid lesions in nucleus of the solitary tract: time-dependent recovery of hypoxic ventilatory response and peripheral afferent axonal plasticity. J Neurosci, 2002.
  4. Cheng et al. Attenuation of baroreflex sensitivity after domoic acid lesion of the nucleus ambiguus of rats. J Appl Physiol, 2004.
  5. Cheng et al. Differential control over postganglionic neurons in rat cardiac ganglia by NA and DmnX neurons: anatomical evidence. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 2004.
  6. Farmer et al. Brainstem sources of cardiac vagal tone and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. J Physiol, 2016.
  7. Geis GS & Wurster RD. Cardiac responses during stimulation of the dorsal motor nucleus and nucleus ambiguus in the cat. Circ Res, 1980.
  8. Gourine et al. Cardiac vagal preganglionic neurones: An update. Auton Neurosci, 2016.
  9. Gray et al. Parasympathetic control of the heart. III. Neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive nerve terminals synapse on three populations of negative chronotropic vagal preganglionic neurons. J Appl Physiol, 2004.
  10. Verberne, Anthony JM. Differential cardiac parasympathetic innervation–what is the functional significance? Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 2004.

Additional Papers and Books Mentioned

Other Critiques of Polyvagal Theory

James C Coyne on – various critical articles regarding PVT
RIP Polyvagal Theory by Shin Shin Tang (
The Problem with the Polyvagal Theory by Max Pearl
Evolution of a Theory: Polyvagal is Not Dead by Janae Elisabeth
The Dark Side of Polyvagal Theory by Brian Dunning


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